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About Thane

Thane, which is included in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, is one of the most urbanized districts in the Maharashtra state of India. In fact, 70% of the district’s population lives in an urban area. The city, also known as the City of Lakes, has been marked by a rapid demographic growth.

About the City

Land area (km2)

128.23 km2


1,818,872 (2011)

Population growth rate

1,261,615 (2001)

% of the city's territory which is urban

Population density (hab / km2)

14,185 (2011)

Rate of population density change over last decade

435 hab/km2/year


Tropical Monsoon climate, Humid (61-86%), Avg. rainfall: 2000- 2500mm



Main economic activity

Secondary (Industry, manufacturing, metalworking industry, vehicles, electrical equipment, chemicals, food)

Community type

Mixed community of all economic groups

About the Local Government

Official name

Official name in English

Thane Municipal Corporation

Number of municipal employees

1,000+ (2012)

Annual income in USD

246,185,092 USD (2013-14)

Annual expenditure in USD

264,405,785 USD (2013-14)



Mayor or senior elected representative

5 years (Present term 2012 -2017)

Municipal Commissioner or senior appointed representative

Depends on State Government's decision

City vision and mission statement

"IMAGINE AHEAD – PLAN BACKWARDS" - City aims to improve the overall economic efficiency, employment generation and promotion of services. It seeks to exploit the thrust areas and the growth engines of the city thereby to increase domestic and foreign investment in the city. This also aims in enhancing the cities ability to compete in present scenario of globalization"




Urban systems, infrastructures and services managed by the Local Government

Health care facilities, Parks, Public transportation, Roads construction, Road maintenance, Schools, Water supply, Waste management, Wastewater drainage, Wastewater treatment, Disaster management, Fire brigade, Pollution control

ICLEI Membership


Member of regional/national/global initiatives


Original vision and practise

Description of relevant existing development policies

Development Control Rule, Costal Regulation Zone Rules 

Current sustainability strategy and/or action plan

Thane City Energy & Carbon Emission report, Development of Thane solar City

Description of sustainability policies in the local community

1. Solar Water Heater (SWH) installation mandatory for new buildings and 10% rebate in property tax upon installation of SWH

2. Upto 50% waste segregation: 3% rebate in property  and more than 50% than 5% rebate

3. INR 5000 to 25000 fine/penality for spreading dust nuisance in the city thorgh various city level developmental activities by  Govt agencies as well private builders and developers. Any activities that lead to dust pollution needs to be reduced during implementation phase and also ensure that after the project is completed it should not cause further dust pollution

Case studies

Advancing a low emissions city: The roles and responsibilities of stakeholders (Coming soon)

Relevant past and current projects

Street lighting - Energy Efficiency

Energy Efficient Municipal Buildings 

Energy Efficient & CFC free air conditioning 

Water Supply - Energy Efficiency

Waste to Energy

Renewable Energy

Amendments in Building Bye-Laws

City Climate protection policy

EE & RE measures at City level


Current review process of existing policies , plans, strategies and activities

Pioneering India’s Solar Cities Program (2012)

At a glance

% access to electricity


% access to district heating

Not applicable

% access to district cooling

Not applicable

% served by municipal water system

Not available

Water consumption per inhabitant

91.62  (Supply : 251 LPCD) for 2011

% served by municipal wastewater drainage system

40% (CDP 2003)

% served by municipal solid waste collection system


Solid waste generation per inhabitant

130.43 (Generation: 650 Metric tons per day)

% of municipal area served by separate waste collection for recycling


% living in informal settlements


Public transportation modes available


Modal split

Public transportation network coverage of urban area

Not available

Energy profile

Community's final energy consumption by economic sector according to GPC











Energy consumption per inhabitant


% of local government operations of community final energy consumption


Local government operations of final energy consumption by sector of activity according to IEAP



Water supply


Sewage Treatment Plant


Street Lighting




Community final energy consumption evolution through time

Electricity consumption grew at compounded annual growth rate of 5% since 2008-09 to stand at 1662 million kWh in 2012-13. Largest electricity consumers- Residential sector (50%), Industrial sector (21%) and Commercial/Institutional sector (29%).

Further information on energy profile

Development of Thane Solar City 2010 - www.thanecity.gov.in/downloads.php

Total GHG emissions from the community: 1,252,120 tCO2e (2007-2008)


For more information on the city's GHG emission reporting, visit their profile on the carbonn Climate Registry.

Energy-efficient street lighting

Recently the city completed its fi rst GHG inventory. In addition to this, an energy service company (ESCO) has been engaged to audit 10,000 of the 70,000 street lights in Thane and outline financial plans for implementation. This mitigation activity will improve illumination levels, large-scale energy efficiency and system modernization for better operation and maintenance of street lighting, reducing costs of the local government.

Green building policy and municipal drivers training

Some other highlights of a few ongoing activities are: the development of a local green building policy. To support this, a background study and data collection have been conducted. An existing building approval process has been documented to support this work. Moreover, a municipal driver training program is currently under development – training drivers of the municipal transport system on good driving practice to optimize fuel effi ciency and consequently reduce emissions. The training will be provided by the Petroleum Conservation and Research Association.

WWF Earth Hour City Challenge (EHCC) 2014-2015 National Capital Winner

Thane was selected as the EHCC National Capital of India due to its ambitious community commitments for renewable energy and energy efficiency, aiming for a six percent increase in Renewable Energy and seven percent increase in Energy Efficiency between 2010 - 2015. The jury was additionally impressed by the City's strong focus on reducing emissions from buildings and curbing traffic congestion.

Low Emission Measures in Thane Municipal School

15 kW peak grid interactive roof top SPV LED tube light, energy efficient 35 watt fan Smart meter, smart sensors and PF correction Panel


Climate Change Low Carbon Practices Awareness Program

A climate change and low carbon practices awareness program is implemented in 15-20 schools in Thane.

Further engagements

  • Reporting in the carbonn Climate Registry (www.carbonn.org)
  • GHG inventory is compliant with the Global Protocol on Community-Scale Gas Emission Inventories (GPC)

For more information on the city's mitigation action reporting, visit their profile (page 2) on the carbonn Climate Registry.

GCC tracking for Thane
Step I
Step II
Step III

GreenClimateCities methodology - Legend

GreenClimateCities Methodology - Chart

Urban LEDS

Main factors for city selection


  • Past and ongoing policies/initiatives/projects undertaken by TMC
  • City commitment and interest in environmentally sustainable projects
  • Administrative and technical support
  • Solar City Master Plan has been prepared and is approved by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) – opportunity for updating and quick roll out of strategy, enhancing it with Urban-LEDS perspectives.
  • Basic institutional capacity within city to work in the climate change arena – opportunity to successful integrate LED urban planning. Track record of supporting and implementing energy efficiency projects indicating the city’s commitment to low emissions development.

Low carbon vision 

Moving towards a low carbon economy by exploring various innovative technological solutions and integrating them into city level activities to ensure the better delivery of services to the citizens of Thane city.


  • Final energy consumption in the community: 7,895,164 GJ (2007-2008)
  • GHG emissions from the community: 1,252,120 tCO2e (2007-2008)
  • Main economic activity: Secondary Sector – Industry, Manufacturing, Metalworking Industry, Vehicles, Electrical Equipment, Chemicals, Food, Paper.
  • Main priority sectors for Low Emission Urban Development: Thane City has been a pioneer in taking innovative steps towards low carbon development and has taken part in many of the international and national projects. The key areas where the city has introduced interventions are renewable energy and energy effi ciency in buildings; street lighting; water supply; waste to energy. Implementation of the solar city program is a priority, with energy effi ciency, net metering based renewable energy power plants, light emitting diode (LED) street lighting, energy effi ciency in water supply, and waste-to-energy plants identifi ed as action areas.



Participating in the national “Development of solar cities program”, the city is committed to reduce projected conventional energy demand by 10% by 2013 in the period 2008-2013. In addition, the local government set a renewable energy target of 6% reduction by 2015 (from 2011) for community-based emissions and the energy effi ciency target of 7% by 2015 (from 2010) for the community.


City’s main challenges


  • Being part of the Mumbai urban agglomeration, Thane is challenged by a rising urban population and pressure on existing land and natural resources. Increase in population from 0.75 million in 1991 to 1.2 million in 2001 and 1.9 million in 2011 which shows an average decadal growth rate of approximately 59%.
  • Building political consensus for implementing non-populist policy measures.
  • Developing successful business cases for large scale roll out of energy efficiency/renewable energy programs.
  • Changing traditional community behaviour patterns to ensure progressive and sustainable growth.
  • High energy consumption in street lighting, water supply and waste water treatment in the city.


Main LED priorities of the city /city´s aspirations


  • To introduce net-metering system to promote SPV system
  • To promote mass transport system
  • To undertake waste to energy project
  • To undertake water front development project
  • Need for a comprehensive city wide strategy to integrate LED planning into regular planning processes to immediately roll out initiatives proposed under the solar city master plan.
  • Ensure effective and optimal electricity use through energy efficiency measures, Demand Side Management (DSM) and application of renewable energy resources.
  • To implement net metering based renewable energy power plants to ensure green energy supply and consumption.
  • City-wide roll out of pilot level initiatives in street lighting, energy efficiency in water supply systems, waste to energy plants. 


Lessons learned and replication 

  • Accelerating action through data collection and partnerships: Since the project’s inception, cooperation with the electricity department has resulted in a sample audit of the 32,500 streetlights in Thane; 10,000 street lights have been identified for LED retrofitting, through the involvement of the utility company, ESCO.
  • Evidence-based methods of research and planning have been instrumental to Thane’s Urban-LEDS activities.

Pre-existing city policies and strategies (climate and energy)

Public announcements & commitments to low emission development (name of documents, links, dates)

Policy for promotion of renewable energy: General Body resolution to mandate the use of solar assisted water heating system within TMC jurisdiction includes:

  • Mandatory use – for all new buildings
  • Incentive for residential buildings - 10% per annum rebate in property tax. This policy was approbed by the GB on 27-12-2005

Policy to encourage segregation of solid waste (any body who generates waste such as  individual houses, society, hotels, malls, marriage halls, apartment, business, etc.) and to promote TMC's 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) concept for solid waste management (Date: 2012-13):

  • For more than 50% of waste segregated: 5% rebate in property tax
  • Up to 50% of waste segregation: 3% rebate in property tax. TMC has framed a one page format which the beneficiaries can avail from TMC website or TMC offices and fill in detail in the prescribed format and submit to the SWM department for availing the benefit.                                                                    

Policy on Dust pollution Control: This policy has been approved in the year 2011 by the General Body (city council). Under this policy, a penality/fine will be imposed on builders and developers, various Govt. organizations and others for not taking measures to reduce the dust pollution during the construction/project implementation phase as well after completion of the projects.

Description and possible links to Urban-LEDS


  • Use of SWH will utimately reduce the energy consumption which in turn will lead to reduction in emission of GHG into the atmosphere.
  • Encouraging waste segregation at source will save the time, cost and energy required otherwise for proper management and disposal of the solid waste. This initiative will also lead to encourage W2E projects at smaller/local level, generation of biogas, vermicomposting etc. apart from educating the importance of 3Rs for solid waste. 
  • Help reduce air pollution within the city.


Urban-LEDS process / GreenClimateCities methodology implementation

Local Government department responsible for Urban-LEDS activities and implementation

All the concerned department (Water Supply, electrical, SWM, Transportation, Pollution Control, sewerage etc.) existing within the TMC will implement the Urban LEDS activities and action plans as relevant to their departments activities. However, the Electrical department will assit during any stage of project implementation as the needs arises.