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About Bogor

Bogor formerly Buitenzorg is located in a mountainous region 60 kilometers south of Jakarta. Bogor is recognized as an important economic, scientific, cultural and touristic center just outside the Indonesian capital city.

In the early 19th century, the city briefly served as an administrative center under the Dutch East Indies and is now reinventing itself as a tourism and cultural hub with a wealth of historical heritage such as: the presidential palace and one of the oldeest and largest botanical garden in the world  botanical garden.

For centuries, Bogor has been nicknamed "the Rain City" because of frequent rain showers, including during its dry season.

About the City

Land area (km2)

118.5 km2

Population growth rate

26.57% (2001-2011)

% of the city's territory which is urban


Population density (hab / km2)

8,000 hab/km2

Rate of population density change over last decade

1,780 (hab/km2/year)


Equatorial - Climate and geography

Community type


About the Local Government

Official name

Pemerintah Kota Bogor

Official name in English

Bogor City Government

Number of municipal employees

9,535 (2012)

Annual income in USD

USD 163,239 (2011)

Annual expenditure in USD

USD 144,775 (2011)

City vision and mission statement

Vision: "A trade city with produtive human resource and exellent service." Mission: 1. “Economy development that relies on trade service activities.”, 2. “Embody clean city with based on transportation infrastructure.”, 3. “Improving the quality of human resource and community skill.”, 4. “Improving of public services based on community participation”





Urban systems, infrastructures and services managed by the Local Government

Water supply, waste management, sanitation

ICLEI Membership

Yes (2012)

Member of regional/national/global initiatives

CityNet, ICLEI

Original vision and practice

Description of sustainability policies in the local community

Environmental Policy: City Regulation #4/2007 on Environmental Management - This specific Environmental Policy outlines the vision, priorities and commitments of the Bogor LG in implementation of environment protection and management including:

1. Management of water quality, 

2. Management of air quality

3. Management of solid waste and hazardous waste.


Integrated Transportation Plan: 

In 2003 the city began to substitute fuel with natural gas. Public transportation is using CNG. This program is called the “Blue Sky Program”, and is supported by the Ministry of Environment. This program provided 100 converter kits for private vehicles to convert to CNG.

Energy saving: 8,347 GJ

Cost saving: $50,694

Reduction CO2: 608 TCO2e

Investement: $75,000


Energy Efficiency on Street Lighting: The City Council seeks to reduce electricity bills with long-term and sustainable solutions. Its street light management scheme began operating in late 2001. The scheme consists of substituting 775 mercury lamps to sodium lamps, plus the installation of 400 electric sub meters to measure actual energy use from street lights. In December 2003, there was an estimated 23% reduction in the cost from the baseline in 2000. The City Government hopes this street lamp substitution could contribute 20% of the GHG reduction goals.

Energy saving : 4,278,408 KWh

Cost saving : USD 450,000

Reduction CO2: 3,170 TCO2e

Cost: USD 1.7 Million

Case studies


Relevant past and current projects

Biodiesel for transpakuan (Mass transportation in Bogor), Recycling

Current review process of existing policies , plans, strategies and activities

Review Medium Term Regional Development Plan and formulation of local budget

At a glance

% access to electricity


% served by municipal water system


% served by municipal wastewater drainage system


% served by municipal solid waste collection system


Public transportation modes available

Bus, Train

Public transportation network coverage of urban area

599.2 kilometers of roads cover 5.31% of the city area; 30.2 kilometers of the roads are of national and 26.8 km of prefectural importance. The 22 transport lines are operated by 3,506 buses and minibuses. In addition, 10 bus routes connect the city with the nearest metropolitan area (4,612 buses) and 40 with other cities of West Java (330 buses).

Energy profile

Energy consumption per inhabitant

12 MJ/Year

% of local government operations of community final energy consumption


Total GHG emissions from the community: 4,970,635 tCO2 (2013) *Scope 1 emissions

 For more information on the city's GHG emission reporting, visit their profile on the carbonn Climate Registry.

Bogor City Council approved a budget of 12 million USD for sustainable transport

In 2014, the city council allocated roughly 12 million USD (IDR 147.067 Milyar) to improve sustainable low emission transport in the city. This will support the revitalization of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system “The Transpakuan” which serves 14 kilometers (km) of the city area. The buses will switch to using gas, as a low emission fuel option. Another objective is the conversion of a huge number of microbuses to either use gas (planned for 1000 microbuses) or electricity (50 microbuses). In order to implement this, the city will provide converter kits or devices to support the conversion of premium fuel to gas as well as to electricity. These actions will not only help the city reduce its emissions considerably, but also lead to better air quality and support the national government’s goal of achieving its emission reduction targets.

Completion of the Mid-Term Development Plan 

Following, a unique multi-stakeholder consultation effort, the local government of Bogor reviewed its existing spatial planning frameworks and extensively integrated its Low Emission Development Strategy in its 5-year Mid-Term Development Plan (also known as RPJMD). The RPJMD speaks to Bogor's determination to implement LEDS through strategic action, and includes as objectives:


  • introducing  integrated low-emission transportation systems that prioritize pedestrians and cyclists;
  • establishing city-wide waste management schemes and facilities;
  • the development of green building standards to accelerate the use of low emission development technologies, materials and design strategies;
  • improving  spatial planning and urban development projects to reduce vulnerability to climate-related risks; and
  • enhancing  accessibility and user-friendliness of urban facilities in general to improve overall quality of life.


This has led to: a Green Building Standardization, a Mayoral Decree on Transition to EcoMobility using Pedestrianization, a Mayoral Decree on ‘Heritage City Management’ focusing on building retrofitting, pedestrian areas, conversion of street lighting to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), as well as replacing the traditional light bulbs with LEDs in heritage buildings. 

Bogor’s Walkability Campaign

It has already decided to build 22.5 kilometers of pedestrian paths until 2020 with fi rst phases concluded. These paths are equipped with tag tiles, bicycle lines, and green areas and are completely integrated with public transport stations and public places. A park-and-ride system is also planned.

Green Building Concept

Bogor is advancing in adopting the green building concept for buildings to be constructed from 2015 onwards. The local government has allocated funds in the annual budget to build the new House of Representative Building based on Energy Efficiency principles. In addition, a number of historic buildings in a popular heritage area have been identified for retrofitting, to be concluded in the next five years.

Waste-to-Energy Program

The local government is further developing a “waste-to-energy program” that focuses on transferring waste from compost residuals into energy.

Greenhouse gas inventory

(coming soon)

Further engagements

  • Reporting in the carbonn Climate Registry (www.carbonn.org)
  • Earth Hour City Challenge participant (2014 - 2015)
  • GHG inventory is compliant with the Global Protocol on Community-Scale Gas Emissions (GPC)

For more information on the city's mitigation action reporting, visit their profile (page 2) on the carbonn Climate Registry.

GCC tracking for Bogor
Step I
Step II
Step III

GreenClimateCities methodology - Legend

GreenClimateCities Methodology - Bogor

Urban LEDS

Main factors for city selection


  • Having past and on-going environmental initiative and mitigation projects, the availability of comprehensive city climate information
  • Significant city near Jakarta - an important economic, scientific, cultural and tourist center.
  • High emissions, highly valued environment Jakarta water catchment area.
  • Strong track record in implementing environmental, sustainability and low emission initiatives, also through ICLEI’s earlier Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) campaign.
  • Has experience working with international funders.
  • Well positioned to act as role model for others.
  • Strong leadership from Mayor and department heads, which should provide continuity during mayoral election period this year.

Low carbon vision 

Realize a clean and environmentally sound city based on developing green economy with emphasis on services that optimize the use of existing natural resources. 


  • Final energy consumption in the community: 5,550,235 GJ (2014)
  • GHG emissions from the community: 4,970,635 tCO2 (2013) *Scope 1 emissions
  • Main economic activity: Trade, Tourism, Services and some Industries.
  • Main priority sectors for Low Emission Urban Development: Transportation, Energy effi ciency, Waste management (recycling and waste-to-energy).



The local government is in the process of analyzing data to set specifi c commitments based on factual information from the draft GHG inventory. It has already set a renewable energy target for the government operations: 33% reduction by 2014. 

City’s main challenges

  • Lack of energy efficiency, rapid population growth, urban sprawl, and land use changing
  • To maintain its reputation as a clean mountain resort.
  • To work with neighboring municipalities to re-vegetate precious catchments.

Main LED priorities of the city /city´s aspirations

Transportation, Energy Efficiency, Waste to Energy, 3R


  • Continued introduction of green bus fleet using biodiesel from used cooking oil.
  • Improved solid waste management.
  • Management of waterways and water quality, also exploring the water-energy nexus.
  • Creation of additional green space and carbon sequestration.

Lessons learned and replication 

  • Developing a five-year regional plan enables strategic growth. In order for Bogor to continue growing sustainably, the City realized it needed a strong spatial planning framework and a five-year plan.
  • Political commitment goes a long way. Key components of the 5-year development plan are the result of two Mayoral Decrees.
  • Accelerating LEDS with nexus solutions.

Urban-LEDS process / GreenClimateCities methodology implementation

Urban-LEDS MoU with ICLEI

MoU between Bogor City Government  & ICLEI SEA (660.32/KK.3-Bapp/2013) (02/04/2013)

General description of process

ICLEI open the oportunity for interest to all local governments in Indonesia, Kota Bogor send their Expression of Interest which showed relevant environment and climate change policy, initiatives, and show a high political commitment to engage in to the Urban LEDS project.

Local Government department responsible for Urban-LEDS activities and implementation

Working Group under BAPPEDA (Regional Development Planning Agency)

Stakeholder groups engaged in Urban-LEDS implementation

NGOs, stakeholder list of city public consultation for Musrembang

When and how were higher levels of government involved?

The Mayor has already give political commitment by signing MoU with ICLEI to agreed on 3 years Urban LEDS program. The entire members of Working Group are high level of official in their agencies.


ICLEI Indonesia Bulletin, March and October 2013 edition, WWF Press Release (http://www.wwf.or.id/berita_fakta/?28780/kota-kota-di-indonesia-memulai-komitmen-pembangunan-kota--rendah-emisi-leds)

What is the time frame for short/mid-term/long-term targets in the City LEDS?

Long-term: 20 years; Medium-term: 5 years; Short term: n/a

Which institutional mechanisms have been put in place to support the implementation of City LEDS?

Working group on climate change mitigation.