In 1872, the city of KwaDukuza (formerly Stanger) was founded on the settlement of King Shaka, former Dukuza. The beach town of Ballito was established when several entrepreneurs explored land to develop. North of Ballito, Shaka’s Rock was the location where Shaka commanded his warriors to jump from a cliff in order to prove their courage. Uhmhlali, a farming village, was founded when the English and Scottish settled in 1850. Shaka’s Kraal, the site of Shaka’s military homestead, is located near Umhlali. KwaDukuza was named after being the home area to King Shaka.
Land area (km2)
Population growth rate
% of the city's territory which is urban
Population density (hab / km2)
Rate of population density change over last decade
Rate of population change over last decade
Main economic activity
Third sector (commerce, service sectors)
KwaDukuza Local Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal
Official name in English
KwaDukuza Local Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal
Number of municipal employees
53 councillors (2011)
Annual income in USD
105,205,869.34 USD (2012)
Annual expenditure in USD
105,196,476.93 USD (2012)
Council elected term
Mayor or senior elected representative
Mayor: Ricardo Mthembu
Municipal Commissioner or senior appointed representative
Municipal Manager: Nhlanhla Mdakane
City vision and mission statement
By 2030, KwaDukuza shall be a vibrant city competing in the global village economically, socially, politically and in a sustainable manner.” “The mission of the KwaDukuza Municipality is to achieve highest economic status through: Driving local economic development; Delivering a high standard of essential services; Encouraging public participation; Overcoming debt and achieving cost recovery on services provided.”
Urban systems, infrastructures and services managed by the Local Government
Waste management, Wastewater drainage, Wastewater management
Member of regional/national/global initiatives
UCLG cities sharing network
% access to electricity
90.2% Electricity for lighting
% served by municipal water system
33.6 % of the population has access to piped water inside homes.
Water consumption per inhabitant
% served by municipal wastewater drainage system
33.7 % flush toilet connected to sewerage.
% served by municipal solid waste collection system
60.7 % refuse removed once a week.
Solid waste generation per inhabitant
estimated: 84.93kg/person/year (2012)
% of municipal area served by separate waste collection for recycling
no recycling collection from source
% of population living in informal settlements
Approximately 61% of the KwaDukuza Municipality population does not earn an income. This category includes children and housewives. Studies also show that 13% of the employed earn between R401 – 800. There are high levels of poverty in KwaDukuza as studies indicate that about 90% of the employed ear below R1600 which is the poverty line.
Public transportation modes available
Bus, Train (commuter, interctiy)
Energy consumption per inhabitant
22.99 GJ/capita 2012 (6.8 tCO2e/capita 2012)
% of local government operations of community final energy consumption
2.17% (excluding electrical losses)
Total GHG emissions from the community: 1,008,657.49 tCO2e (2012)
For more information on the city's GHG emission reporting, visit their profile on the carbonn Climate Registry.
Participatory scenario planning process
The aim of this process was to use the future scenario planning to craft a 2030 vision and objectives with municipal staff and stakeholders. Launched by the City in 2013, the scenario planning activities gathered over 400 local residents and schools to plan for climate action in new and creative ways to visualize climate change impacts.
Low Emission Development Strategy
After an extensive 2-year process, the KwaDukuza Low Emission Development Strategic Framework and Action Plan is publicly available and open for comments.
Involving the wider community to get inputs into the low emission development 2030 vision. It has been developed by the municipality and local stakeholders, using creative engagement techniques including cartoons of the 2030 scenarios and a drama play depicting possible futures. This initial engagement session involved 400 local residents and further engagement with schools has already taken place. An ongoing engagement is planned.
Roll-out of 500 hotboxes (passive insulated cookers) to households
The aim is to reduce poverty, decrease energy use and fire risk, but also to promote gender empowerment. Some hotboxes have already been distributed to Ward Councilors who act as “train-the-trainers”. Full roll-out and training is scheduled for January 2015. A monitoring and evaluation component is included to track emission reductions in each household.
Engagement of local businesses
The local business community is encouraged to be ambassadors for the low emission development vision within the community. This process has been kicked off and is ongoing, pursued in partnership with the local Chamber of Commerce.
Green building policy development
For 2015 it is envisaged to develop a policy and implementation plan to encourage compliance with green building criteria in new developments.
Roll-out of resource efficiency service package in local orphanages
With pending approvals, this roll-out is planned for 2015 and aims at demonstrating local leadership and reducing energy poverty through a visible retrofit project, involving strategic local leaders.
Groutville Care Homes
The Groutville community is home to the Stranger Child Welfare Association which puts 20 children in need in the care of foster parents. Under the Urban-LEDS project, they were trained on the importance of Urban-LEDS, how to use Wonderbags, LED mobile lights and compost containers. The families also received support to create their own food gardens and plant trees sponsored by the municipality.
For more information on the city's mitigation actions, visit their profile (page 2) on the carbonn Climate Registry.
GCC tracking for KwaDukaza
GreenClimateCities methodology - Legend
Main factors for city selection
Main LED priorities of the city /city´s aspirations
Low carbon vision
KwaDukuza Municipality strives to be an environmentally sustainable municipality that anticipates, manages and reduces its vulnerability to potential global and local environmental shocks and works consistently with the department of environmental affairs to drastically reduce the impact of its built environmental and urban processes on the broader envelope of natural resources.
New low-carbon vision developed in Urban-LEDS project – still to be formally adopted: By 2030 KwaDukuza will have successfully managed its transition to low carbon development and will be:
Currently under discussion by the municipality is to have locally generated renewable energy of 10-15% by 2020. Further, the reduction in use of non-electrical fuel sources for cooking and heating (tentative target: to reduce by 12% by 2020) and to reduce per capita emissions by 10% by 2020.
Lessons learned and replication
Urban-LEDS process / GreenClimateCities methodology implementation
Urban-LEDS MoU with ICLEI
Letter of Agreement (11/03/2013)