Urban-LEDS logos banner

About KwaDukuza

In 1872, the city of KwaDukuza (formerly Stanger) was founded on the settlement of King Shaka, former Dukuza. The beach town of Ballito was established when several entrepreneurs explored land to develop. North of Ballito, Shaka’s Rock was the location where Shaka commanded his warriors to jump from a cliff in order to prove their courage. Uhmhlali, a farming village, was founded when the English and Scottish settled in 1850. Shaka’s Kraal, the site of Shaka’s military homestead, is located near Umhlali. KwaDukuza was named after being the home area to King Shaka.

About the City

Land area (km2)

734.971 km2


250,000 (2012)

Population growth rate


% of the city's territory which is urban

39.5 %

Population density (hab / km2)

340 hab/km2

Rate of population density change over last decade

0.003398 (hab/km2/year)

Rate of population change over last decade

2001-2011 (3.2%)


Tropical wet-dry

Main economic activity

Third sector (commerce, service sectors)

Community type


About the Local Government

Official name

KwaDukuza Local Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal

Official name in English

KwaDukuza Local Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal

Number of municipal employees

53 councillors (2011)

Annual income in USD

105,205,869.34 USD (2012)

Annual expenditure in USD

105,196,476.93 USD (2012)

Council elected term

4 years

Mayor or senior elected representative

Mayor: Ricardo Mthembu

Municipal Commissioner or senior appointed representative

Municipal Manager: Nhlanhla Mdakane

City vision and mission statement

By 2030, KwaDukuza shall be a vibrant city competing in the global village economically, socially, politically and in a sustainable manner.” “The mission of the KwaDukuza Municipality is to achieve highest economic status through: Driving local economic development; Delivering a high standard of essential services; Encouraging public participation; Overcoming debt and achieving cost recovery on services provided.”



Urban systems, infrastructures and services managed by the Local Government

Waste management, Wastewater drainage, Wastewater management

ICLEI Membership


Member of regional/national/global initiatives

UCLG cities sharing network

Sustainability journey to date

Coming soon!

At a glance

% access to electricity

90.2% Electricity for lighting

% served by municipal water system

33.6 % of the population has access to piped water inside homes.

Water consumption per inhabitant

51.1 m3/hab/year

% served by municipal wastewater drainage system

33.7 % flush toilet connected to sewerage.

% served by municipal solid waste collection system

60.7 % refuse removed once a week.

Solid waste generation per inhabitant

estimated: 84.93kg/person/year (2012)

% of municipal area served by separate waste collection for recycling

no recycling collection from source

% of population living in informal settlements

Approximately 61% of the KwaDukuza Municipality population does not earn an income. This category includes children and housewives. Studies also show that 13% of the employed earn between R401 – 800. There are high levels of poverty in KwaDukuza as studies indicate that about 90% of the employed ear below R1600 which is the poverty line.

Public transportation modes available

Bus, Train (commuter, interctiy)

Energy profile

Energy consumption per inhabitant

22.99 GJ/capita 2012 (6.8 tCO2e/capita 2012)

% of local government operations of community final energy consumption

2.17% (excluding electrical losses)

Total GHG emissions from the community: 1,008,657.49 tCO2e (2012)

For more information on the city's GHG emission reporting, visit their profile on the carbonn Climate Registry.

Participatory scenario planning process

The aim of this process was to use the future scenario planning to craft a 2030 vision and objectives with municipal staff and stakeholders. Launched by the City in 2013, the scenario planning activities gathered over 400 local residents and schools to plan for climate action in new and creative ways to visualize climate change impacts.

Low Emission Development Strategy

After an extensive 2-year process, the KwaDukuza Low Emission Development Strategic Framework and Action Plan is publicly available and open for comments. 

Community engagement

Involving the wider community to get inputs into the low emission development 2030 vision. It has been developed by the municipality and local stakeholders, using creative engagement techniques including cartoons of the 2030 scenarios and a drama play depicting possible futures. This initial engagement session involved 400 local residents and further engagement with schools has already taken place. An ongoing engagement is planned.

Roll-out of 500 hotboxes (passive insulated cookers) to households

The aim is to reduce poverty, decrease energy use and fire risk, but also to promote gender empowerment. Some hotboxes have already been distributed to Ward Councilors who act as “train-the-trainers”. Full roll-out and training is scheduled for January 2015. A monitoring and evaluation component is included to track emission reductions in each household.

Engagement of local businesses

The local business community is encouraged to be ambassadors for the low emission development vision within the community. This process has been kicked off and is ongoing, pursued in partnership with the local Chamber of Commerce.

Green building policy development

For 2015 it is envisaged to develop a policy and implementation plan to encourage compliance with green building criteria in new developments.

Roll-out of resource efficiency service package in local orphanages

With pending approvals, this roll-out is planned for 2015 and aims at demonstrating local leadership and reducing energy poverty through a visible retrofit project, involving strategic local leaders.

Groutville Care Homes

The Groutville community is home to the Stranger Child Welfare Association which puts 20 children in need in the care of foster parents. Under the Urban-LEDS project, they were trained on the importance of Urban-LEDS, how to use Wonderbags, LED mobile lights and compost containers. The families also received support to create their own food gardens and plant trees sponsored by the municipality. 

Further engagements

  • Reporting in the carbonn Climate Registry (www.carbonn.org)
  • GHG inventory compliant with the Global Protocol on Community-Scale Gas Emissions (GPC)

For more information on the city's mitigation actions, visit their profile (page 2) on the carbonn Climate Registry.

GCC tracking for KwaDukaza
Step I
Step II
Step III

GreenClimateCities methodology - Legend

GreenClimateCities Methodology - Chart

Urban LEDS

Main factors for city selection

  • Proximity to Durban is a driver for new development. Growing city.
  • Committed leadership towards integration of urban planning, ecosystem services and development.
  • Strong statement within Integrated Development Plan towards climate resilience and low carbon development.
  • Received national grant for priority implementation of energy efficiency initiatives at the local level.

Main LED priorities of the city /city´s aspirations

  • Keen to realize the benefits of a local green economy to by using a low-carbon approach to drive investment and job creation.
  • Interested in improvement of the sustainability of the built environment through the promotion of green building policy and design.
  • Bring together and align different policies and strategies and mainstream climate action into the Development Plan of the Municipality.

Low carbon vision

KwaDukuza Municipality strives to be an environmentally sustainable municipality that anticipates, manages and reduces its vulnerability to potential global and local environmental shocks and works consistently with the department of environmental affairs to drastically reduce the impact of its built environmental and urban processes on the broader envelope of natural resources.

New low-carbon vision developed in Urban-LEDS project – still to be formally adopted: By 2030 KwaDukuza will have successfully managed its transition to low carbon development and will be:


  • A distinctive urban launch pad for the Richards Bay / uMhlathuze Corridor; 
  • A job-rich green manufacturing, renewable energy and logistics hub;
  • A thriving tourism destination;
  • A model of integrated resource management and climate change adaptation
  • A Shaka-inspired interface with its traditional hinterland [Shaka Zulu was a great Zulu warrior and king who united his people and showed leadership at a key moment in history].



Currently under discussion by the municipality is to have locally generated renewable energy of 10-15% by 2020. Further, the reduction in use of non-electrical fuel sources for cooking and heating (tentative target: to reduce by 12% by 2020) and to reduce per capita emissions by 10% by 2020.


Lessons learned and replication

  • Public engagement leads to community buy-in and long-term commitment. Involving the wider community not only resulted in additional visions and input, but also strengthened community support. The City’s intensive discussions and exchange resulted in the development of a 2030 vision.
  • A strong vision sets the course for ambitious LEDS action. Since the establishment of the 2030 vision, numerous projects and programs have been put into motion. Programs and initiatives set to take flight in 2015 include the roll-out of 500 passive insulated cookers for households, an innovative resource-efficient service package for local orphanages, and green building policy development.
  • Improved resource-efficiency through pilot programs and training ignited the passive cooking Wonderbag project, with the deployment of 500 devices in 2014.

Urban-LEDS process / GreenClimateCities methodology implementation

Urban-LEDS MoU with ICLEI

Letter of Agreement (11/03/2013)